5’-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor that serves as a cellular housekeeper; it also controls energy homeostasis and stress resistance. Thus, correct regulation of this factor can enhance health and survival. AMPK signaling may have a critical role in aging-associated brain diseases. Some in vitro studies have shown that 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF) induces AMPK activation. In the present study, we experimentally evaluated the effects of 1,5-AF on aging-associated brain diseases in vivo using an animal model of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs), and the spontaneous senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) model. In the AIS model, intraperitoneal injection of 1,5-AF reduced cerebral infarct volume, neurological deficits, and mortality. In SHRSPs, oral administration of 1,5-AF reduced blood pressure and prolonged survival. In the SAMP8 model, oral administration of 1,5-AF alleviated aging-related decline in motor cognitive function. Although aging reduced the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we found that 1,5-AF activated AMPK, which led to upregulation of the PGC-1α/BDNF pathway. Our results suggest that 1,5-AF can induce endogenous neurovascular protection, potentially preventing aging-associated brain diseases. Clinical studies are needed to determine whether 1,5-AF can prevent aging-associated brain diseases.