Background: Immune-related enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) have garnered significant attention in cancer metabolism research, yet their specific roles in ccRCC have remained elusive.

Methods: We retrieved eRNA expression profiles from TCGA database and identified immune-related eRNAs (IREs) by assessing their co-expression with immune genes. Utilizing consensus clustering, we organized these IREs into two distinct clusters. The construction of an IREs signature was accomplished through the LASSO and multivariate Cox analysis. Furthermore, we performed Cell Counting Kit-8 and clonogenic assays to assess changes in the proliferative capacity of Caki-1 and 769-P cells.

Results: The existence of two clusters of immune-related eRNAs in ccRCC, each with distinctive prognostic and immunological attributes. Cluster B exhibited immunosuppressive properties and displayed a positive correlation with immunosuppressive cells. Functional enrichment analysis unveiled their involvement in several tumor-promoting pathways, metabolic pathways and immune pathways. The IREs signature demonstrated its potential to accurately predict patient immune and prognostic characteristics. AC003092.1, an eRNA strongly associated with patient survival, emerged as a potential oncogene significantly linked to adverse prognosis and the presence of immunosuppressive cells and checkpoints in ccRCC patients. Notably, AC003092.1 displayed marked upregulation in ccRCC tissues and cell lines, and its knockdown substantially inhibited the proliferation of Caki-1 and 769-P cells.

Conclusion: We established a robust predictive model that played a vital role in determining the prognosis, clinicopathological characteristics and immune cell infiltration patterns of ccRCC patients. IRE, particularly AC003092.1, which was strongly associated with survival, hold promise as novel immunotherapeutic targets for ccRCC.