Background: Bladder cancer (BLCA), which develops from the upper endometrial of the bladder, is the sixth most prevalent cancer across the globe. WDHD1 (WD repeat and HMG-box DNA binding protein 1 gene) directly affects signaling, the cell cycle, and the development of the cell skeleton. Uncertainty surrounds WDHD1's function in BLCA immunity and prognosis, though.

Materials and Methods: Using weighed gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), initially, we first identified 32 risk factors in genes with differential expression for this investigation. Then, using a variety of bioinformatic techniques and experimental validation, we examined the connections between WDHD1 and BLCA expression, clinical pathological traits, WDHD1-related proteins, upper-skin-intermediate conversion (EMT), immune cell immersion, convergence factors, immune markers, and drug sensitivity.

Result: The findings demonstrated that we constructed a 32-gene risk-predicting model where WDHD1 was elevated as a representative gene expression in BLCA and related to a range of clinical traits. Furthermore, high WDHD1 expression was a standalone predictor associated with a worse survival rate. The most commonly recruited cells and their evolutionary patterns were highlighted to better comprehend WDHD1's function in cancer. High WDHD1 expression was associated with many aspects of immunology. Finally, the study found that individuals with high expression of WDHD1 were drug-sensitive to four different broad-spectrum anti-cancer drugs.

Conclusion: These results describe dynamic changes in the tumor microenvironment in BLCA and provide evidence for the hypothesis that WDHD1 is a novel biomarker of tumor development. WDHD1 may therefore be a useful target for the detection and management of BLCA.