Previous studies have reported the correlation between gut microbiota (GM), GM-derived metabolites, and various intestinal and extra-intestinal cancers. However, limited studies have investigated the correlation between GM, GM-derived metabolites, and osteosarcoma (OS). This study successfully established a female BALB/c nude mouse model of OS. Mice (n = 14) were divided into the following two groups (n = 7/group): OS group named OG, injected with Saos-2 OS cells; normal control group named NCG, injected with Matrigel. The GM composition and metabolites were characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that amino acid metabolism was dysregulated in OS. The abundances of bone metabolism-related genera Alloprevotella, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, and Muribaculum were correlated with amino acid metabolism, especially histidine metabolism. These findings suggest the correlation between GM, GM-derived metabolites, and OS pathogenesis. Clinical significance: The currently used standard therapeutic strategies for OS, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, are not efficacious. The findings of this study provided novel insights for developing therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic strategies for OS.