Angelica sinensis (AS) can improve the haematopoietic function, but the treatment mechanism is unknown. Transfusion dependency was estimated by Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional-hazard model in AS treated apalstic anemia (AA) patients. After that, the AA GEO database was analysed, the up differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of AA were combined with AS targets for the intersection of targets. After the AA mouse model was established, the effect of AS was confirmed by haematopoietic function tests. The same experiment plus mitochondrial apoptotic pathway tests in vivo were performed in Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP)-treated mice, the key ingredient in AS. For in vitro experiment, bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) were tested. Clinical data confirmed that the level of transfusion dependency and IL17A were lower in AS-users compared to non-AS users (p < 0.001). The intersection of targets between AA and AS most concentrated on inflammation and apoptosis. Then, the same effect was found in AS treated AA mice model. In both in vivo and in vitro tests, ASP demonstrated the ability to mitigate P38/MAPK-induced Bax-associated mitochondrial apoptosis, while also reducing the levels of activated Th17 cells and alleviating abnormal cytokine levels. So, the protective effect of AS and ASP on hematopoietic function lies in their ability to prevent apoptosis.