Research Paper Volume 8, Issue 3 pp 458—483

Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo−/− mice

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Figure 4. Impact of ascorbate on the cytokinome of Gulo−/− mice.

(A) Heatmap depicting the Z-score of log base ten in serum cytokine concentrations (rows) between individual (columns) wild type and Gulo−/− mice treated with different amounts of ascorbate. Columns are reordered by hierarchical clustering using the genotype and ascorbate treatments to label the three leaves. (B) Principal component analysis (PCA) graph demonstrating the differentiation effect of ascorbate on the cytokinome profiles of wild type and Gulo−/− mice treated with different amounts of ascorbate. Wild type animals are labeled WT.1 to WT.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0.4% ascorbate in drinking water are labeled GV.1 to GV.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0.01% ascorbate are labeled G.1 to G.6. Gulo−/− mice treated with 0% ascorbate in drinking water from the age of three to four months are labeled GNV.1 to GNV.6. The Euclidean distance and complete agglomerative methods were used for clustering.