Research Paper Volume 8, Issue 3 pp 458—483

Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo−/− mice

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Figure 9. Impact of ascorbate on the levels of different stress markers in the liver of Gulo−/− mice.

(A) Example of western blots showing protein levels of phosphorylated and total NFκB, phosphorylated and total p38 MAP kinase. β-actin was used as loading controls. (B) Ratio of phosphorylated NFκB signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 compared to 0.4% ascorbate treated Gulo−/− mice). (C) Ratio of total NFκB signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (D) Ratio of phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: *P < 0.05 compared to wild type mice). (E) Ratio of total p38 MAP kinase signal over β-actin signal from the western blots. (Tukey post ANOVA test: *P < 0.05 compared to wild type mice). Bars in all histograms represent SEM of three mice.