Figure 4. Transcriptomic analyses of CS exposed trachea from 3rd instar larvae. (A) RNA sequencing experiment of trachea derived from nontreated (control) and CS exposed animals (CS) revealed a total of 143 genes significantly upregulated and 36 genes significantly downregulated in response to CS exposure (p<0.05). Shown is a heatmap with all 4 biological replicates comprising those 50 differentially transcribed genes with the most supportive p-values. qRT-PCR experiment to verify the differential transcription of selected genes (B). Transgenic animals carrying a Gal4 element under the control of the presumptive Prx2540 promoter (C, D) crossed to UAS-GFP flies and not exposed to CS (C) or exposed to CS (D). (E) Venn diagram analyses of those genes that were significantly regulated in respinse to CS exposure (smoke) compared with those regulated in response to infection (infection) and those regulated in response to ectopic PGRP-LE expression (PGRP-LE OE).