Research Paper Volume 10, Issue 10 pp 2783—2799

Ubiquitin-specific protease 4 promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by increasing TGF-β signaling-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

Figure 5. USP4 activated TGF-β signaling pathway to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (A) The expression of EMT markers in SK-Hep1- shRNA/USP4 cells and in negative control cells (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001). (B) The expression of EMT markers in HuH7-USP4 cells and in negative control cells (* P < 0.05, *** P < 0.001). (C) The expression of TGFR-1 and p-Smad2 in SK-Hep1- shRNA/USP4 cells and in negative control cells (*** P < 0.001). (D) The expression of TGFR-1 and p-Smad2 in HuH7-USP4 cells and in negative control cells (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01). (E) The expression of TGFR-1, p-Smad2 and EMT markers in SK-Hep1- shRNA/USP4 cells or in negative control cells, with TGF-β1(10ng/mL)treatment for 24h or without (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001). (F) The migration ability of SK-Hep1-shRNA/USP4 cells or negative control cells, with TGF-β1 treatment or without, detected by Transwell migration assay (** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001).