Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 6 pp 1832—1849

White light emitting diode induces autophagy in hippocampal neuron cells through GSK-3-mediated GR and RORα pathways

Figure 6. RORα inhibitor, SR1001, rescues the expression of autophagy-related proteins, yet not GSK3α, GSK-3β and GR in light-exposed HT-22 cells. (AD) Protein content of LC3B, Beclin, ATG4c, ATG7, SIRT1, phospho-AMPK, RORα, GR and phospho-GR. RORα inhibitor SR1001 completely rectified light-induced up-regulation of RORα and autophagy-related proteins, including LC3B, Beclin, ATG4c, ATG7, SIRT1 and phospho-AMPK, in HT-22 cells. However, increases in GR and phospho-GR protein expression were not rectified by SR1001. Values are means ± SEM, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, compared with Dark group, #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, compared with Light group (n = 3 or 4); (EG) Immunofluorescence of GR, showing that SR1001 was not able to restore light-induced GR activation and GR nuclear translocation. The nuclei were stained with Hoechst (blue) and GR was stained with GR antibody (red). Scale bars, 75 μm; (HI) Protein content of total and phospho-GSK-3α/β (Ser21/9). Light-induced increase in total GSK-3α/β and decrease in phospho-GSK-3α/β were not rescued by SR1001. Values are means ± SEM, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, compared with Dark group (n = 3).