Figure 11. RSV improves protein metabolism by improving mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. (A) Representative images of the western blotting results for p-mTOR, mTOR, p-S6K, S6K, FoxO3a, atrogin-1, MuRF1 and MHC in L6 myotubes; GAPDH was used as a loading control. (B and C) The bar charts show quantification of the indicated proteins. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. aP < 0.05 vs. the control group; bP < 0.05 vs. the PA-treated group; cP < 0.05 vs. the RSV (25 μM) and PA (0.75 mM) cotreated group with control siRNA transfection. (D) Myotubes were incubated with PA for 24 h in the presence or absence of NAC (5 mM) or MitoTEMPOL (5 μM). Protein levels were measured by western blotting. (E) The bar charts show the relative protein levels. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. aP < 0.05 vs. the control group; bP < 0.05 vs. the PA-treated group.