Review Volume 11, Issue 17 pp 7307—7327

Metabolic remodeling induced by mitokines in heart failure

Figure 2. Communication between mitochondria and nucleus in heart failure. ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; ATF5: activating transcription factor 5; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; ETC: electron transfer chain; FAO: fatty acid β-oxidation; FADH2: reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; GDF15: growth differentiation factor 15; Mt: mitochondrial; MDPs: mitochondria-derived peptides; NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; OS: oxidative stress; OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation; ROS: reactive oxygen species; UPRmt: mitochondrial unfolded protein response.