Figure 1. The exosomes derived from hBMSCs promote the activity of osteoblasts (hFOB1.19). (A) The morphology of BMSCs after 72 h of culture (100 ×). (B) Oil red O staining of BMSCs after adipogenic induction for 3 weeks (400 ×). (C) Alizarin red staining of BMSCs after osteogenic induction for 3 weeks (400 ×). (D) Detection of osteoblasts viability by CCK-8 assay. (E) Alizarin red staining of osteoblasts (200 ×). (F) ALP staining of osteoblasts (200 ×). (G) The morphology of exosome (200 nm) was observed under a TEM. (H) Analysis of particle size distribution and concentration in exosome by TRPS. (I) The protein expression of CD63, CD9, HSP70 and Calnexin measured by Western blot analysis. (J) The endocytosis of hFOB1.19 following 24 h of co-culture with exosomes observed with a confocal microscope (400 ×). (K) Alizarin red staining of osteoblasts (hFOB1.19) treated with BMSC-Exos (200 ×). (L) ALP staining of osteoblasts (hFOB1.19) treated with BMSC-Exos (200 ×). * p < 0.05 vs. PBS or control; # p < 0.05 vs. BMSCs. Data were expressed with mean ± standard error. In Panel D, the repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. The experiment was repeated three times.