Figure 11. Blockage of the TGF-β1 receptor partly reversed the renal protective effects of the HRS against septic AKI. (A) Tgf-β1 receptor mRNA expression; (B) BUN concentrations; (C) Serum creatinine concentrations; (D) Masson’s Trichrome staining, where blue staining represents extracellular matrix deposition, suggesting fibrosis; (E) Collagen volume fraction ratio; (F) TUNEL staining (×200); (G) Percentage of TUNEL-positive cells; (H) β-galactosidase staining (×400); (I) Percentage of senescent tubular area. n=6 per group. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM. Significance was calculated by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test, *: P<0.05. Abbreviations: Con, the group in which mice were treated with the vehicle; TGF-β1R inhibitor, the group in which mice were treated with the TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor only; HRS inhalation + CLP, the group in which mice were treated with HRS aerosol inhalation after the cecal ligation and puncture operation; TGF-β1R inhibitor + HRS inhalation + CLP, the group in which mice were pretreated with the TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor before HRS aerosol inhalation and the cecal ligation and puncture operation.