Figure 1. tHSCs co-culture induces Nrf2 signaling activation in mDCs. The bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) were co-cultured with/without tumor HSCs (tHSCs; mDCs to tHSCs ratio, 20: 1) for applied time, Nrf2-Keap1 association was tested by the co-immunoprecipitation (“Co-IP”) (A); Expression of listed proteins in cytoplasm lysates (B and E) and nuclei lysates (C) were tested by Western blotting; Expression of listed mRNAs was tested by qPCR (D). Listed proteins were quantified and normalized to the loading control (A–C, E). Lamin-B1 is a nuclear marker protein (C). “Tubulin” stands for the loading control β-Tubulin (Same for all Figures). Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n=5). “Ctrl” stands for mDCs only (no tHSCs stimulation). * P < 0.05 vs. “Ctrl” group. The experiments in this figure were repeated four times, and similar results were obtained.