Figure 3. tHSCs-induced Nrf2 activation and DIgR2 expression in mDCs is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) were pretreated for 1h with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 μM) or MnTBAP (40 μM), followed by co-culture with tumor HSCs (tHSCs; mDCs to tHSCs ratio, 20: 1) for applied time, the ROS contents and mitochondrial depolarization were tested by H2DCFDA dye (A) and JC-1 dye (B) assays, respectively; Relative expression of listed genes were tested by qPCR assay (C–E). “Ctrl” stands for mDCs only. “PBS” stands for vehicle control PBS. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n=5). * P < 0.05 vs. “PBS” group. The experiments in this figure were repeated four times, and similar results were obtained.