Figure 3. Chondrogenic effects of Col11a2 in vitro. (A) Luciferase activity to indicate the allelic difference in Col11a2 expression driven by rs9277935 (n=6 for each) in ATDC5 cells. (B) Alcian blue staining of BMSCs in different treatment groups at 2 weeks to indicate GAG production in the culture plate. (C) Immunofluorescent assay of Aggrecan (red) expression, cytoskeleton (green) nucleus (blue) in different treatment groups observed under confocal microscopy. Scale bar=200μm. (D–F) Expression level of chondrogenic markers for BMSCs in different treatment groups (n=6 for each) in (B) and (G–I) quantification of GAG production, COL I and II DNA in generated cartilaginous tissues (n=6 for each). *P < 0.05 between control group and other groups. Data are presented as averages ± SD. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey’s B test was applied. Ab, antibody; Exo, exogenous; ACAN, aggrecan; GAG, glycosaminoglycan.