Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 11 pp 11116—11138

Deoxyelephantopin induces apoptosis via oxidative stress and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity in vitro and in vivo through targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer

Figure 3. DET induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells in vitro. (A) DET-induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells were tested using AO/EB double staining assay. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. CTL, control. (B) DET-induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells were assessed using Hoechst 33342 staining. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. ##P < 0.01 versus DET (30 μM) or DET (40 μM). CTL, control. (C) DET-induced apoptosis in BxPC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells were determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Annexin V-FITC (-) and PI (-) cells were defined as alive, Annexin V-FITC (+) but PI (-) cells were defined as early apoptosis, Annexin V-FITC (+) but PI (+) cells were considered to be late apoptosis. Annexin V-FITC (-) and PI (+) cells were thought to be necrotic cells. The total apoptosis rate was the sum of early apoptosis rate and late apoptosis rate. **P < 0.01 versus CTL. ##P < 0.01 versus DET (30 μM) or DET (40 μM). CTL, control. Magnification, × 200 (A, B). Scale bar, 100 μm (A, B).