Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 14 pp 13991—14018

Peanut skin extract ameliorates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice by alleviating inflammation and maintaining gut microbiota homeostasis

Figure 9. Effects of PSE on pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine protein level in the liver and adipose tissue of HFD-induced diabetic mice. The change in pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (A) and pro-inflammatory cytokine at the protein level (B) in the liver of HFD-induced diabetic mice after administering PSE at 10, 80, and 160 mg/kg for 6 weeks, respectively. The change in pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (C) and pro-inflammatory cytokine at the protein level (D) in the adipose tissue of HFD-induced diabetic mice after administering PSE at 10, 80, and 160 mg/kg for 6 weeks, respectively. Each value was expressed as the mean ± SEM of 10 mice. #, ##, and ### represent significant difference compared to the control group at p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively. *, **, and *** indicate significant difference compared to the DM group at p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively.