Figure 4. Humanin levels are related to human mitochondrial health. Low mtDNA copy number is associated with lower levels of humanin (A). Increased mtDNA mutation or absence of mtDNA (rho0 cells) is associated with decreased levels of humanin (B). Humanin levels are also decreased in the CSF of Alzheimer’s diseases patients (n=4) compared to control (n=3) (C) *indicates p<.05.