Figure 5. CTCF activates Hedgehog signaling pathway. (A) GSEA plots indicated that “GCNP_SHH_UP_EARLY.V1_UP” and “GCNP_SHH_UP_LATE.V1_UP” and “GCNP_GLI1_UP.V1_UP” gene signatures enrich in the CTCF high expression group and “GCNP_SHH_UP_LATE.V1_DN” gene set enriches in the CTCF low expression group (GSE17538, n = 177, and TCGA, n = 465). (B) Western blot analyses of Key molecules of Hedgehog signaling pathway in different transfected groups with or without the stimulation of Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, GDC-0449 (2 μM). (C) Relative growth rate of different transfected groups with or without the administration of GDC-0449 (2 μM). (D–F) Images of EdU staining of both indicated cell lines with or without the administration of GDC-0449, and the relative percentage of EdU-positive cells in images of related groups is shown. The above data are presented as mean ± SEM. * P<0.05, **P<0.01, and ***P<0.001.