Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 17845—17862

Metformin improves cognition of aged mice by promoting cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis

Figure 4. Transcriptome analysis of blood of 8-month-old mice treated with metformin. (A) Heatmap of differentially expressed genes in the blood of 8-month-old mice treated with metformin. (B) and (C) KEGG pathway analysis of green and turquoise modules. (D) Relative PFKP mRNA expression in hippocampal tissue from metformin-treated mice. (E) Relative GAPDH mRNA expression in hippocampal tissue from metformin-treated mice (every treated group n ≥ 3). Ctrl: Control; Met: Metformin. The overall significance between two groups was determined by Student’s t-test. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, ns, not significant.