Figure 4. Multivariable modelling of longitudinal rates of change in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and whole blood mitochondrial DNA (WB mtDNA) content. Final selected multivariable linear regression models of longitudinal ΔLTL/year (variance inflation factor (VIF) ≤1.5) in (A) all, (B) HIV+, and (C) HIV- participants, and WB ΔmtDNA content/year (VIF≤1.2) in (D) all, (E) HIV+, and (F) HIV- participants. Final models among all participants were selected automatically by minimizing Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Statistical significance depicted by red confidence intervals; negative standardized β values indicate associations with either faster LTL loss or faster WB mtDNA content loss and vice versa. Coefficients of determination (R2) are shown for each model. The ΔLTL/year models show that after adjusting for age and LTL at baseline, ethnicity, and substance use, a slower loss of WB mtDNA/year is significantly independently associated with faster LTL attrition. Similarly, the models for WB ΔmtDNA content/year show that after adjusting for LTL and WB mtDNA at baseline, a slower rate of LTL attrition is independently associated with faster loss of WB mtDNA content. Detectable HIV viremia was associated with faster decline in both markers.