Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 18522—18544

GPA peptide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation to ameliorate colitis through AMPK pathway

Figure 1. GPA inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-induced pyroptotic cell death in macrophages. Chemical structure of GPA (A). THP-1 cells were primed with LPS for 4 h, followed by GPA treatment 6 h before stimulation with ATP for 30 minutes. cell death was measured by staining with propidium iodide (PI) (B), and LDH released (C). Immunoblot analyzed of IL-1β and caspase-1 in supernatants and cell lysate of THP-1 cells (D). IL-1β in supernatants of THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA (E). THP-1 cells were primed with LPS, followed by GPA treatment 6 h before stimulation with ATP, Nigericin or MSU, IL-1β in supernatants of THP-1 cells was detected by ELISA (F). Data are presented as mean ± SD, three independent experiments. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001.