Figure 4. GPA reduced ROS and mtDNA production, and suppressed NLRP3 mitochondrial localization. THP-1 cells were primed with LPS for 4h, followed by GPA treatment 6 h before stimulation with ATP for 30 min. Levels of the ROS and mtROS were measured in THP-1 cells (A, B). Quantitative real-time PCR analyzed of mtDNA in THP-1 cells (C). Immunoblot analyzed of mitochondrial components of NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells through extract mitochondrial (D). Immunoblot analyzed of Golgi components of NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells through extract Golgi (E). Immunofluorescence analyzed of mitochondrial components of NLRP3 in THP-1 cells (F). Data are presented as mean ± SD, three independent experiments, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001.