Figure 1. Risk of Alzheimer’s disease for genetically predicted glycemic traits. The associations are assessed using the inverse-variance weighted method. Estimates are per 1-unit higher log-odds of type 2 diabetes, 1-SD higher fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, %-units higher HbA1c, and 1-SD lower HOMA-β (indicating pancreatic β-cell dysfunction). Trait values for fasting insulin, HOMA-β and HOMA-IR were naturally log transformed. CI, confidence interval; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HOMA-β, homeostasis model assessment- β-cell function; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance.