Figure 1. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced spatial learning and memory impairment in the Morris water maze test. After a 30-day cerebral hypoperfusion, the rats were trained to learn and remember the location of the platform in the Morris water maze. The latency time to find the platform (A) and the staying time in the platform area (B) from the first to the seventh day were recorded to evaluate the learning ability of rats. After 1-day rest, the rats were re-tested and the number of times the platform area was crossed (C), the latency time to find the platform (D), and the time staying in the platform quadrant (E) were recorded to evaluate short-term memory. Con: sham group (n=15); CCH: the group with bilateral common carotid artery ligation (n=20). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. ** P<0.01, compared with the Con group.