Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 694—713

Activation of adenosine A3 receptor reduces early brain injury by alleviating neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly rats

A3R agonist alleviated oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) induced neuronal apoptosis through “direct” and “indirect” effects, accompanied by a significant microglia M(IL-4) polarization in vitro. (A) Mimetic diagram of the Transwell co-culture system. (B, C) The effect of A3R agonist on neuronal apoptosis and expression of caspase 3. (D) Effects of CI-IB-MECA and P38 and STAT6 inhibitors on neuronal apoptosis with a Transwell co-culture system. (E) Microglia polarized to the classically activated phenotype after the treatment with OxyHb, and CI-IB-MECA increased the number of Arg-1-positive and decreased the iNOS-positive microglia in vitro. Quantitative analysis of the percentage of iNOS- and Arg-1-positive cells in different groups under the indicated treatments. n=5 in each group. Values are shown as the mean ± SD. **p p p p

Figure 4. A3R agonist alleviated oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) induced neuronal apoptosis through “direct” and “indirect” effects, accompanied by a significant microglia M(IL-4) polarization in vitro. (A) Mimetic diagram of the Transwell co-culture system. (B, C) The effect of A3R agonist on neuronal apoptosis and expression of caspase 3. (D) Effects of CI-IB-MECA and P38 and STAT6 inhibitors on neuronal apoptosis with a Transwell co-culture system. (E) Microglia polarized to the classically activated phenotype after the treatment with OxyHb, and CI-IB-MECA increased the number of Arg-1-positive and decreased the iNOS-positive microglia in vitro. Quantitative analysis of the percentage of iNOS- and Arg-1-positive cells in different groups under the indicated treatments. n=5 in each group. Values are shown as the mean ± SD. **p < 0.01 versus sham group; ## p < 0.01 versus OxyHb group; & p < 0.05 and && p < 0.01 versus OxyHb +CI-IB-MECA group.