Figure 4. A3R agonist alleviated oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) induced neuronal apoptosis through “direct” and “indirect” effects, accompanied by a significant microglia M(IL-4) polarization in vitro. (A) Mimetic diagram of the Transwell co-culture system. (B, C) The effect of A3R agonist on neuronal apoptosis and expression of caspase 3. (D) Effects of CI-IB-MECA and P38 and STAT6 inhibitors on neuronal apoptosis with a Transwell co-culture system. (E) Microglia polarized to the classically activated phenotype after the treatment with OxyHb, and CI-IB-MECA increased the number of Arg-1-positive and decreased the iNOS-positive microglia in vitro. Quantitative analysis of the percentage of iNOS- and Arg-1-positive cells in different groups under the indicated treatments. n=5 in each group. Values are shown as the mean ± SD. **p < 0.01 versus sham group; ## p < 0.01 versus OxyHb group; & p < 0.05 and && p < 0.01 versus OxyHb +CI-IB-MECA group.