Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 24633—24650

The impact of physical frailty on the response to inactivated influenza vaccine in older adults

Figure 1. Heat maps comparing frail to non-frail on day 0 (A), day 3 (B), and day 7 (C) post-vaccination. Lower expression of genes involved in cellular movement, hematological development and function, immune cell trafficking, and inflammatory response can be observed in the frail group compared with non-frail on day 0 and day 3. Higher expression of genes involved cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular development is shown in the frail group compared with non-frail on day 7. Genes involved in infectious diseases were consistently expressed at higher levels in frail versus non-frail adults at all three time points.