Figure 1. Heat maps comparing frail to non-frail on day 0 (A), day 3 (B), and day 7 (C) post-vaccination. Lower expression of genes involved in cellular movement, hematological development and function, immune cell trafficking, and inflammatory response can be observed in the frail group compared with non-frail on day 0 and day 3. Higher expression of genes involved cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular development is shown in the frail group compared with non-frail on day 7. Genes involved in infectious diseases were consistently expressed at higher levels in frail versus non-frail adults at all three time points.