Figure 3. Decreased prostate cell proliferation and immune cell infiltration by GV1001 in BPH mice. BPH mice received either GV1001 (GV, 250 μg/head) or finasteride (F, 100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. (A) A representative prostate from each group is shown (n=7 mice/group). Upper panels show the urinary bladder and lower panels do not. (B) The weight of prostate and (C) seminal vesicles was measured at the end of the experiments. ***p<0.001. (D, E) Prostates were excised, fixed and stained (D) with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and (E) with an anti-Ki67 antibody. Scale bar, 100 μm. The bar graph shows the number of infiltrating immune cells and Ki67-positive cells. ***p<0.001, *p<0.05. The asterisk (*) indicates infiltrating immune cells. (F) Expression of PCNA and PSA in prostate cell lysates was examined by immunoblotting; β-actin was used as an internal control. (G) Plasma concentration of testosterone and DHT was measured using EIA kits. ***p<0.001, *p<0.05.