Research Paper Advance Articles

Tumor-associated macrophages promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

Inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathway attenuates EMT of PDAC cell lines. (A) Transwell assay results show migration and invasion ability of BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells after incubation with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of the neutralizing TGF-β neutralizing antibody. Scale bar = 50 μm; ***P B) Transwell assay results show the migration and invasion ability of BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells after incubation with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of TGF-β receptor inhibitors, LY364947 (1 μM) and LY2109761 (10 μM). Scale bar = 50 μm; **P C) Western blot analysis shows the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin), Smad3 and phospho-Smad3 proteins in BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells incubated with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of TGF-β receptor inhibitors, LY364947 and LY2109761.

Figure 5. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathway attenuates EMT of PDAC cell lines. (A) Transwell assay results show migration and invasion ability of BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells after incubation with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of the neutralizing TGF-β neutralizing antibody. Scale bar = 50 μm; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001. (B) Transwell assay results show the migration and invasion ability of BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells after incubation with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of TGF-β receptor inhibitors, LY364947 (1 μM) and LY2109761 (10 μM). Scale bar = 50 μm; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. (C) Western blot analysis shows the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin), Smad3 and phospho-Smad3 proteins in BxPC-3 and PaTu-8988 cells incubated with TAM-CM in the presence or absence of TGF-β receptor inhibitors, LY364947 and LY2109761.