Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 5020—5033

Toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on corneas in vitro and in vivo

TiO2 NPs boosted cell damage of corneal endothelial cells. (A) Detection of shape and size of TiO2 NPs by TEM, bar = 20 nm. (B) Cell viability of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells. (C) Measurement of LDH content in TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells. (D) Morphological analysis of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells by inverted microscope, bar = 50 μm. (E) Mitochondrial membrane potential of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells by using JC-1, bar = 30 μm. *P**P***P

Figure 1. TiO2 NPs boosted cell damage of corneal endothelial cells. (A) Detection of shape and size of TiO2 NPs by TEM, bar = 20 nm. (B) Cell viability of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells. (C) Measurement of LDH content in TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells. (D) Morphological analysis of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells by inverted microscope, bar = 50 μm. (E) Mitochondrial membrane potential of TiO2 NPs-treated primary endothelial cells by using JC-1, bar = 30 μm. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.