Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 5226—5237

Associations between smoking, sex hormone levels and late-onset hypogonadism in men differ depending on age

Adjusted mean sex hormone levels by smoking status in middle-aged and elderly men. Adjusted mean levels of (A) total testosterone, (B) calculated free testosterone, (C) luteinizing hormone, and (D) sex hormone-binding globulin by smoking status in middle-aged and elderly men. CFT, calculated free testosterone; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin. Geometric mean values were calculated using multiple covariance and adjusting for age (in “overall” analysis only), body mass index, and alcohol intake. Error bars indicate standard error. *P

Figure 1. Adjusted mean sex hormone levels by smoking status in middle-aged and elderly men. Adjusted mean levels of (A) total testosterone, (B) calculated free testosterone, (C) luteinizing hormone, and (D) sex hormone-binding globulin by smoking status in middle-aged and elderly men. CFT, calculated free testosterone; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin. Geometric mean values were calculated using multiple covariance and adjusting for age (in “overall” analysis only), body mass index, and alcohol intake. Error bars indicate standard error. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs. never smokers.