Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 5571—5584

The joint effect of energy reduction with calcium supplementation on the risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the overweight population: a two-year randomized controlled trial

The effect of energy reduction and calcium supplementation on serum calcium, serum 25(OH)D3 adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, and BMI. (A) Comparison of serum calcium changes between ERGs and NERGs. (B) Comparison of serum calcium changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (C) Comparison of serum calcium changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. (D) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes between ERGs and NERGs. (E) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (F) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. Note: P-value for the difference in the joint effect of intervention and time.

Figure 3. The effect of energy reduction and calcium supplementation on serum calcium, serum 25(OH)D3 adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, and BMI. (A) Comparison of serum calcium changes between ERGs and NERGs. (B) Comparison of serum calcium changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (C) Comparison of serum calcium changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. (D) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes between ERGs and NERGs. (E) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (F) Comparison of serum 25(OH)D3 changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. Note: P-value for the difference in the joint effect of intervention and time.