Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 4 pp 5571—5584

The joint effect of energy reduction with calcium supplementation on the risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the overweight population: a two-year randomized controlled trial

The effect of energy reduction and calcium supplementation on 2h-insulin, and HOMA-IR adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, and BMI. (A) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes between ERGs and NERGs. (B) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (C) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. (D) Comparison of Gutt index changes between ERGs and NERGs. (E) Comparison of Gutt index changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (F) Comparison of Gutt index changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. Note: P-value for the difference in the joint effect of intervention and time.

Figure 5. The effect of energy reduction and calcium supplementation on 2h-insulin, and HOMA-IR adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, regular exercise, and BMI. (A) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes between ERGs and NERGs. (B) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (C) Comparison of HOMA-IR changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. (D) Comparison of Gutt index changes between ERGs and NERGs. (E) Comparison of Gutt index changes between CSGs and NCSGs. (F) Comparison of Gutt index changes among CG, ERG, CSG, and ER-CSG. Note: P-value for the difference in the joint effect of intervention and time.