Figure 3. Increased autophagy decreased the apoptosis and intracellular ROS content in ATDC5 cells treated with IL-1β and EC-Exos. ATDC5 cells were treated with 10 ng/ml IL-1β ± EC-Exos (100 μg) or rapamycin (50 nmol/L) for 24 h. (A–D) Protein level of LC3I, LC3II, P62, Beclin-1, Keap-1, HO-1, NQO-1, Bcl-2, Bax, C-caspase3 and β-actin in ATDC5 cells under different treatments. (E) ROS content in ATDC5 cells after different specific experimental treatments. (F) TUNEL assays were used to monitor apoptosis in ATDC5 cells treated with different methods. (G) Apoptosis of ATDC5 cells under different treatments, as detected by flow cytometry.