Figure 1. Autophagy parameter selection of berberine. (A) Effects of berberine on the viability of peritoneal macrophages. (1) Different concentrations of berberine (100–1000 μmol/L, 6 h). (2) Different concentrations of berberine (50–300 μmol/L, 6 h). (3) Different exposure times to berberine (100 μmol/L). Cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test (vs. Control group). (B) Intracellular accumulation of berberine (100 μmol/L) was detected in peritoneal macrophages (scale bar, 0.1 mm). (C) The expression of LC3 I, LC3 II, and Beclin 1 was analyzed by western blotting after treatment with different concentrations of berberine for 6 h. Quantification of LC3 II/LC3 I ratio and Beclin 1 is shown. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test (vs. Control group). All values are expressed as mean ± SD (error bars) of three independent experiments. n = 3; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 versus control.