Figure 3. Berberine-induced TFEB nuclear translocation promotes autophagy. (A) The expression of TFEB in the nucleus and cytoplasm after treatment with berberine at different time points was detected by western blotting. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test (vs. Control group). (B) Representative western blots and quantification of TFEB following siRNA treatment. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test (vs. Control group). (C) Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the effects on TFEB translocation on peritoneal macrophages at 6 h after treatment with berberine. Scale bar, 100 μm. (D) Formation of AVOs was detected by MDC staining after different treatments of peritoneal macrophages. Scale bar, 20 μm. (E) The expression of autophagy pathway proteins and autophagy-related proteins was detected by western blotting in peritoneal macrophages after different treatments. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post-hoc test (vs. Control group). Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests were used to compare two group (vs. berberine group). All values are expressed as mean ± SD (error bars) of three independent experiments. n = 3; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 versus control. #p <0.05, ###p < 0.001 versus berberine group.