Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8127—8145

Long noncoding RNA NKILA transferred by astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles protects against neuronal injury by upregulating NLRX1 through binding to mir-195 in traumatic brain injury

Astrocytes upregulates NKILA to promote recovery of injured neurons. (A) immunochemical staining of MAP2 and NeuN expression in neurons (× 400). (B) proliferation of neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury detected by CCK-8 assay. (C) LDH content in the culture medium of neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury. (D) NKILA expression in neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury detected by RT-qPCR. (E) NKILA expression in injured neurons after co-culture of astrocytes detected by RT-qPCR. (F) neuronal proliferation in injured neurons after co-culture of astrocytes detected by CCK-8 assay. (G) LDH content in injured neuron after co-culture of astrocytes. All data were measurement data and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Independent sample t test was used for comparison between two groups (E). The one-way ANOVA was used for comparison among multiple groups, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test (D) and two-way ANOVA for comparisons between time-based measurements within each group (B, C, F, G). All experiments were done at least three independent times. * p

Figure 1. Astrocytes upregulates NKILA to promote recovery of injured neurons. (A) immunochemical staining of MAP2 and NeuN expression in neurons (× 400). (B) proliferation of neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury detected by CCK-8 assay. (C) LDH content in the culture medium of neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury. (D) NKILA expression in neurons with mild, moderate or severe injury detected by RT-qPCR. (E) NKILA expression in injured neurons after co-culture of astrocytes detected by RT-qPCR. (F) neuronal proliferation in injured neurons after co-culture of astrocytes detected by CCK-8 assay. (G) LDH content in injured neuron after co-culture of astrocytes. All data were measurement data and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Independent sample t test was used for comparison between two groups (E). The one-way ANOVA was used for comparison among multiple groups, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test (D) and two-way ANOVA for comparisons between time-based measurements within each group (B, C, F, G). All experiments were done at least three independent times. * p < 0.05 compared with control neurons or moderately injured neurons cultured with PBS.