Figure 4. Fecal transplantation relieves vaginal atrophy in OVX+FMT mice. (A) The timeline of fecal transplantation and sample collection for OVX+NST and OVX+FT mice. (B) Representative images for isolated vagina of OVX+FMT, OVX+NST, Sham+FMT and Sham+NST group. (C) Vaginal weight (one-way ANOVA, F3,40=101.07, P<0.001), (D) Vaginal length (one-way ANOVA, F3,40=8.68, P<0.001). (E) Vaginal index (vaginal weight/body weight*10-4) (one-way ANOVA, F3,40=129.36, P<0.001). (F) Representative of eosin and hematoxylin staining for vagina of OVX+NST, OVX+FT, Sham+FMT and Sham+NST group mice (magnification 200x), the area delineated by the red dotted line denotes the epithelial layer of the vagina. (G) Average vaginal epithelial thickness of the respective OVS+NST, OVS+FT, Sham+FMT and Sham+NST groups (one-way ANOVA, F3,40=278.45, P<0.001). (H) Average number of vaginal epithelial cellular layers of the OVX+NST group and the OVX+FT group (one-way ANOVA, F3,40=74.19, P<0.001). Data are shown as mean ± SEM, n=11 for each group, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. ANOVA: analysis of variance; OVX+NST: bilateral ovariectomy group with normal saline lavage; OVX+FT: bilateral ovariectomy group with fecal suspension lavage; Sham+FMT: sham operation group with fecal suspension lavage; Sham+NST: sham operation group with normal saline lavage.