Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8524—8540

Combination CTLA-4 immunoglobulin treatment and ultrasound microbubble-mediated exposure improve renal function in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy

Comparison of FBG, Ccr, UAER, KW / BW, ALT, and AST in five groups of rats. Control: control group; CTLA-4-Ig+UM: CTLA-4-Ig+ ultrasound microbubble exposure group; CTLA-4-Ig: CTLA-4-Ig group; UM: ultrasound microbubble exposure group; Nonintervention: no intervention group. Data are means ± SD. (A) FBG: fasting blood glucose, * P B) Ccr: endogenous creatinine excretion rate, * P C) UAER: 24-hour urine albumin excretion rate, * P D) KW / BW: Glomerular hypertrophy index (kidney weight / body weight), * P E) ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, no significant difference between groups; (F) AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, no significant difference between groups.

Figure 1. Comparison of FBG, Ccr, UAER, KW / BW, ALT, and AST in five groups of rats. Control: control group; CTLA-4-Ig+UM: CTLA-4-Ig+ ultrasound microbubble exposure group; CTLA-4-Ig: CTLA-4-Ig group; UM: ultrasound microbubble exposure group; Nonintervention: no intervention group. Data are means ± SD. (A) FBG: fasting blood glucose, * P <0.05 vs control; (B) Ccr: endogenous creatinine excretion rate, * P <0.05 vs control, #P <0.05 vs CTLA-4-Ig + UM, Δ P <0.05 vs CTLA -4-Ig; (C) UAER: 24-hour urine albumin excretion rate, * P <0.05 vs control, #P <0.05 vs CTLA-4-Ig + UM, Δ P <0.05 vs CTLA-4-Ig; (D) KW / BW: Glomerular hypertrophy index (kidney weight / body weight), * P <0.05 vs control, #P <0.05 vs CTLA-4-Ig + UM, Δ P <0.05 vs CTLA-4-Ig; (E) ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, no significant difference between groups; (F) AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, no significant difference between groups.