Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8524—8540

Combination CTLA-4 immunoglobulin treatment and ultrasound microbubble-mediated exposure improve renal function in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy

Analysis of renal Fn, collagen I, and talin staining. Analysis of renal Fn staining. Control group: Weakly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Strongly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Strongly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal Collagen I staining. Control group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Strongly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal Talin staining. Control group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow).

Figure 5. Analysis of renal Fn, collagen I, and talin staining. Analysis of renal Fn staining. Control group: Weakly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Strongly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Strongly positive Fn expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal Collagen I staining. Control group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Weakly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Strongly positive Collagen I expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal Talin staining. Control group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive Talin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow).