Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 6 pp 8524—8540

Combination CTLA-4 immunoglobulin treatment and ultrasound microbubble-mediated exposure improve renal function in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy

Analysis of renal Paxillin, α3, and β1 staining. Analysis of renal Paxillin staining. Control group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal α3 staining. Control group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of β1 staining. Control group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow).

Figure 7. Analysis of renal Paxillin, α3, and β1 staining. Analysis of renal Paxillin staining. Control group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive Paxillin expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of renal α3 staining. Control group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive α3 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow). Analysis of β1 staining. Control group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig + UM group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); CTLA-4-Ig group: Strongly positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); UM group: Positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow); Non-intervention group: Positive β1 expression in the glomerulus (black arrow).