Figure 1. GAS ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in VD model rats. (A) Typical swimming tracks of VD rat in the Morris water maze test. (B) Mean daily escape latency was examined. (C) The escape latency of VD model rats is significantly longer than the sham group. After 8 weeks of GAS treatment, the escape latency is significantly shortened in the probe trial. (D) The number crossings in the target quadrant in the probe trial. (E) Percentage of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trial. (F) Representative photographs of the dissected brain. (G) Observation of morphological changes in hippocampal neurons by H&E staining (×50, ×200. Scale bars: 200 μm or 50 μm. Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). ##P< 0.01 versus sham, *P< 0.05, **P< 0.01 versus model. GAS, gastrodin; VD, vascular dementia; H&E, hematoxylin-eosin.