Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 7 pp 9542—9565

Gastrodin ameliorates learning and memory impairment in rats with vascular dementia by promoting autophagy flux via inhibition of the Ca2+/CaMKII signal pathway

GAS alleviated CoCl2-induced autophagosome accumulation in HT22 cells.  (F) Immunofluorescence analysis revealing the modulation of LC3 in HT22 cells with or without GAS for 24 h (n = 3). Autophagosomes were visualized (green puncta) using a Leica DMIRB at 800× magnification. In each independent experiment, 5 visual field cells were randomly selected and quantified, and are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Immunofluorescence staining of p62 in HT22 cells. (G) Immunofluorescence analysis of p62 in HT22 cells, with or without GAS treatment for 24 h (n = 3). (H) Representative transmission electron microscopy images in HT22 cells. Arrows denote autophagosomes. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. ##P*P2. GAS, gastrodin; CoCl2, cobalt chloride; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3.

Figure 3. GAS alleviated CoCl2-induced autophagosome accumulation in HT22 cells. (F) Immunofluorescence analysis revealing the modulation of LC3 in HT22 cells with or without GAS for 24 h (n = 3). Autophagosomes were visualized (green puncta) using a Leica DMIRB at 800× magnification. In each independent experiment, 5 visual field cells were randomly selected and quantified, and are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Immunofluorescence staining of p62 in HT22 cells. (G) Immunofluorescence analysis of p62 in HT22 cells, with or without GAS treatment for 24 h (n = 3). (H) Representative transmission electron microscopy images in HT22 cells. Arrows denote autophagosomes. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM. ##P< 0.01 versus control, *P< 0.05 versus CoCl2. GAS, gastrodin; CoCl2, cobalt chloride; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3.