Figure 1. Clinical samples reveal that primary gastric cancer induces bone loss before bone metastasis occurs. (A–C) The concentration of serum Ca2+, Pi, and ALP in 25 non-bone metastatic gastric cancer patient compared to healthy volunteers. (D) Healthy control’s pyramidal computed tomography (CT). (E–G) Bone sections of three individual patients with non-bone metastatic gastric cancer. The insets are showing a high-power image of bone loss. The blue circle indicates normal bone and the white arrow pointing to the red circle indicates damaged bone. Data are shown as mean±SEM. Statistical differences are obtained using a Student's t-test, *, p<0.05, **, p<0.01, ***, p<0.001.