Figure 7. Dkk1 partially rescued bone loss due to gastric cancer. (A) Bone mineralization levels in the MSC, MSC+HGC27, and MSC+HGC27+DKK1 groups were analyzed by alizarin red staining at day 16 post-OS induction. (B) Quantitative mineralization levels based on (A). (C) Immunofluorescence staining of MSC, MSC+HGC27, and MSC+HGC27+DKK1 to visualize OCN (green) and nuclei (blue). Scale bars, 100 μm. (D) Quantitative analysis of the fluorescence intensity in (C). (E) Western blot analysis of OPN and ALP expression in MSC, MSC+HGC27, and MSC+HGC27+DKK1 groups. (F) Quantitative analysis of protein levels in (E). (G) ALP activity in the MSC, MSC+HGC27, and MSC+HGC27+DKK1 groups at day 3 post-OS induction. (H) qRT-PCR results comparing ALP and OCN transcription levels in the MSC, MSC+HGC27, and MSC+HGC27+DKK1 groups on day 3 post-OS induction. Data are shown as mean±SEM. Statistical differences were obtained using One-way ANOVA with post-hoc testing, *, p<0.05, **, p<0.01, ***, p<0.001. NS, not statistically significant, n=3, per-group. (I) Schematic diagram of the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway under normal and gastric cancer conditions.