Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 7 pp 10015—10033

Photobiomodulation therapy ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by activating cytochrome c oxidase-mediated protein kinase B in muscle

Activation of AKT signaling restores GS activity in skeletal muscle after PBMT. (A, B) Immunoblot analysis of GSK-3β(S9P) and GS(S641P) in GM (A) and IR-L6 myotubes (B) 30 min after the indicated treatments. (C) Glycogen content was measured in IR-L6 myotubes 30 min after 8 J/cm2 PBMT in the presence of either NAC or API-2 every 12 h for 1 day. Mean ± SD, n = 4. *p vs. the PBMT-untreated group; #p vs. the indicated groups (Student’s t-test). (D) Glycogen content in IR-L6 myotubes transfected with NC or COXIII siRNA. The myotubes treated with 8 J/cm2 PBMT every 12 h for 1 day. Six hours after the last PBMT, glycogen was measured. Mean ± SD, n = 4. **p vs. the PBMT-untreated group; #p vs. the indicated group (Student’s t-test).

Figure 6. Activation of AKT signaling restores GS activity in skeletal muscle after PBMT. (A, B) Immunoblot analysis of GSK-3β(S9P) and GS(S641P) in GM (A) and IR-L6 myotubes (B) 30 min after the indicated treatments. (C) Glycogen content was measured in IR-L6 myotubes 30 min after 8 J/cm2 PBMT in the presence of either NAC or API-2 every 12 h for 1 day. Mean ± SD, n = 4. *p < 0.05 vs. the PBMT-untreated group; #p < 0.05 vs. the indicated groups (Student’s t-test). (D) Glycogen content in IR-L6 myotubes transfected with NC or COXIII siRNA. The myotubes treated with 8 J/cm2 PBMT every 12 h for 1 day. Six hours after the last PBMT, glycogen was measured. Mean ± SD, n = 4. **p < 0.01 vs. the PBMT-untreated group; #p < 0.05 vs. the indicated group (Student’s t-test).