Figure 1. Carminic acid reduces inflammatory response in Fru-incubated cells. (A) Chemical structure of Carminic acid (CA). (B) The mouse tubular epithelial cell line TCMK-1 and human kidney cell line of HK2 were incubated with CA (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 μM) for 24 h. Then, all cells were collected for cell viability measurement using MTT analysis. (C, D) TCMK-1 and HK2 cells were exposed to Fru (5 mM) for 24 h with or without CA (10 and 20 μM). Then, all cells were harvested for the calculation of inflammatory factors using RT-qPCR analysis. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. n = 4 in each group. **P< 0.01 and ***P< 0.001 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05 and ++P< 0.01 compared with the Fru group.