Figure 2. Carminic acid blocks the NF-κB and JNK activation in Fru-treated cells. (A–D) TCMK-1 and HK2 cells were exposed to Fru (5 mM) for 24 h with or without CA (10 and 20 μM). Then, all cells were collected for the subsequent studies. (A, B) Western blotting analysis for p-IKKβ, p-IκBα and p-NF-κB in TCMK-1 and HK2 cells. (C) The protein expression levels of NF-κB were measured in nuclear of cells by western blot analysis. (D) Western blot analysis was used to determine p-JNK protein expression levels in cells. The results are expressed as the means ± SEM. n = 4 in each group. ***P< 0.001 compared with the Ctrl group; +P< 0.05, ++P< 0.01 and +++P< 0.001 compared with the Fru group.